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As they combine high strength and good formability at low production costs they are widely used for automotive applications. Sometimes the martensite regions tend to percolate or appear in the form of elongated bands which is not desirable. Increasing the volume fraction of the hard second phase martensite generally increases the strength but sometimes reduces ductility. Such microstructures enables achieving ultimate tensile strength values in the regime of 400-1200 MPA. For some alloys also baintic portions are used in DP steel microstructures. Dual phase stel microstructure can exhibit a number of advantageous properties compared to other advanced high strength steels. For example the strength of the DP steel microstructure can be designed by the volume fraction of martensite and the ductility by its dispersion.

They do not reveal a pronounced yield point elongation and show a modest ratio between the ultimate tensile strength and the yield strength low of around. DP steels undergo high strain hardening especially at the beginning of plastic deformation. Also, they can be strengthened by static or dynamic strain ageing through the so called bake hardening effect. DP steels with low carbon content exhibit excellent resistance to fatigue crack propagation at growth rates close to fatigue threshold.

The alloying elements used in DP steels have different types of effects Carbon,used in the range between 0.06–0.15 wt.% acts as an austenite stabilizer, strengthens the martensite and determines the phase distribution. Mn, used between 1.5–3 wt.% also stabilizes the austenite, is a ferrite solid solution strengthener and retards ferrite formation. Si promotes ferritic transformation while Cr and Mo, used up to 0.4 wt%, can retard pearlite and bainite formation. Additionally microalloying elements such as V or Nb can be used as precipitation strengtheners and to refine the microstructure. DP ferrite plus martensite steels are produced by controlled cooling from the austenite phase (in the case of hot band products) or from the two-phase ferrite plus austenite phase during an intercritical annealing treatment step (in the case of continuously annealed cold-rolled and hot-dip coated products) to transform some austenite to ferrite before a rapid cooling transforms the remaining austenite to martensite. The microstructures of DP steels are typically not good candidates for applications that require high drawability. They usually exhibit rather poor hole expansion ratio values.

This drawback, however, can be eliminated by adding Ti with the aim of inducing precipitation strengthening in ferrite to reduce the differences in hardness between the two phases. Alternatively, the martensite - ferrite constituents may be replaced or aided by introducing also a bainitic phase. This means that d epending on the composition and process route, hot-rolled steels requiring enhanced capability to resist stretching on a blanked edge (as typically measured by hole expansion capacity) can have a microstructure containing significant quantities of bainite. In response to the increasing demand for fuel efficiency, CO2 reduction, and occupant safety, it was shown that grain refinement is an effective tool to strengthen dualphase steels without raising alloying costs or allowing a decrease in ductility. For answering this question we have studied three ferrite/martensite dual-phase steels with varying ferrite grain size (12.4 µm, 2.4 µm and 1.2 µm) but with nearly the same martensite content (~ 30 vol.%).

The materials were produced by hot deformation and large strain warm deformation at different deformation temperatures, followed by intercritical annealing. Their mechanical properties were compared, and the bake-hardening response of the ultrafine grained steel (1.2 µm) was investigated. The deformation and fracture mechanisms were studied based on microstructure observations using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Grain refinement leads to an increase of both yield strength and tensile strength, whereas uniform elongation and total elongation are less affected.

This can be partly explained by the increase in the initial strain hardening rate. Moreover, the stress/strain partitioning characteristics between ferrite and martensite change due to grain refinement, leading to enhanced martensite plasticity and better interface cohesion. Grain refinement further promotes ductile fracture mechanisms, which is a result of the improved fracture toughness of martensite. The bake-hardening process induces static strain aging phenomena in the ferrite and tempering phenomena in the martensite. Carbon atoms in solid solution form Cottrell atmospheres around dislocations and grain boundaries or precipitate as transition carbides in ferrite and/or martensite.

The diffusion of carbon includes a volume decrease of martensite which reduces the internal stresses in ferrite. The formation of Cottrell atmospheres around dislocations causes (partial) pinning of these dislocations. In addition to the reduction of internal stresses, this leads to the reoccurrence of a more distinct yield point and to an increase in the yield strength. In the present case, no sharp yield point was regenerated after bake-hardening, but the 0.2 % offset yield strength increases by nearly 100 MPa.

The dislocation pinning and release of internal stresses successfully suppressed the early onset of plastic deformation of ferrite. The strengthening effect of carbon precipitation is accompanied by a loss in hardness due to the removal of supersaturated carbon in solid solution. This effect might be the reason for the reduction in tensile strength by 32 MPa after bake-hardening. Thus, bake-hardening of the UFG DP steel leads to a strong increase in yield strength and little decrease of tensile strength. Ductility is enhanced in terms of uniform and total elongation.

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